The International Olympic Committee (IOC) decided that it should be up to each sports federation to designate the framework for the participation of trans women in elite sport.
Following this decision, the federations continue to study the appropriate regulations that would allow trans athletes to compete without being detrimental for competitors.
There has been debate between those who defend the right of trans women to change gender and compete in the female category and those who argue that trans women have an advantage, even if they have completed their hormone therapy, because they retain, or can do so, parameters such as bone and muscle mass, strength and height.
World Athletics are going to make several proposals that would see trans women compete with biological females, with their recommendations having triggered controversy.
According to The Guardian, they will suggest that the maximum permitted plasma testosterone for trans women should be reduced from five nanomoles per litre to 2.5 nmol/L.
Meanwhile, they would also have to stay below the permitted threshold for a couple of years rather than 12 months.
The Guardian saw a World Athletics document where the organization admits that trans women “retain an advantage in muscle mass, volume and strength over cis women after 12 months” of hormone treatment.
“Exposure to puberty also results in sex differences in height, weight, wingspan (throws), pelvic and lower limbs architecture,” the document adds.
“These anatomical differences provide an athletic advantage after puberty for certain athletic events and will not respond to suppression of blood testosterone levels in post-pubertal trans women.
“Both DSD and transgender regulations apply to athletes who are 46 XY individuals aiming at competing in the female category.
“An analysis of DSD cases observed in elite athletes shows that most athletes are 46 XY persons who have testes that produce testosterone concentrations within the male range and who are not insensitive to the effects of androgens.
“As far as athletic performance is concerned, there is no significant difference between a 46 XY DSD individual, a cis male and a trans female prior to transition. Therefore, in this respect there is a need for consistency between the transgender and DSD regulations.”